Chobi (also: chobe, choobe) get their name from an area on the Afghanistan-Pakistan border largely settled by Afghani Turkmen tribes. Often distinguished by their use of natural vegetable and mineral dyes, using hand-spun Himalayan Ghazni wool and hand-knotted. The influence of Persian, Turkmen and Afghan cultures results in rugs of great complexity and superb colouration. These carpets will take very heavy wear and will last for generations. Sometimes Chobis are called Zieglers, since most use the Ziegler design; the common exception being Chobi Gabbehs.
Ushak (also: Oushak, Usak) originally come from the small town of Ushak in west central Anatolia, just south of Istanbul, Turkey. Unlike most Turkish rugs, Ushak carpets clearly show a Persian influence in their design. Ushak has been a rug production centre since the 15th century. Prior to this, Ushak carpets were woven by nomads for their roaming lifestyle. Ushak carpets produced in Turkey and Iran are in very high demand due to their excellent quality. They tend to be more coarsely woven than other Persian rugs, and are always woven with the Ghiordes knot. The designs are typically based on geometric motifs, frequently of a prayer niche design. This is due largely to the fact that since most Turks are Muslims, they observe the prohibition against the depiction of people and animals.
Ziegler (also: Zeigler, Zigler) are so called because their designs copy those pioneered by the Anglo-Swiss company Ziegler and Co. In the early 19th Century they ran a factory in Iran making silk and fine woollen shawls for the European market. But then Scots returning from India and Persia set up hand-weavers in the town of Paisley to do the same but much cheaper, making the Ziegler factory redundant overnight. Zieglers quickly used their design savvy and relations with the likes of Liberty’s in London and understanding of the Arts & Crafts movement to design and weave rugs in Iran creating a hybrid of Persian Mahal and Farahan designs, displacing ‘unnecessary’ design elements to appeal to Western tastes. These were the first Persian rugs to be designed in the West. Nowadays, most Ziegler rugs are in fact Afghan rugs in a Ziegler design.
Garden designs have panel designs throughout the field woven with floral motifs, particularly found in a Persian Bahktiari.
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